Biography (A-Z)

A few basic details are included here: name and patronymic, profession and terms of imprisonment and incarceration. Common alternate spellings of some first names and surnames are indicated [thus].

A.

ALTUNYAN, Genrikh Ovanesovich (1933-2005) — radio technician and engineer in armed forces; member of the Action Group; convicted in 1969 under 190.1 (3 years); born Tbilisi, died Jerusalem.

AMALRIK, Andrei Alexeyevich (1936-1980) — historian; convicted 1970 under 190.1 (3 years); born Moscow, died Guadalajara (Spain).

B.

BELOGORODSKAYA, Irina Mikhailovna — Wife of Vadim Delaunay.

BOGORAZ, Larissa (1930-2003) born and died in Moscow. Author of Budapest Appeal, Red Square demonstrator (August 1968); Wife of Yuly Daniel, then of Anatoly Marchenko.

BUKOVSKY, Vladimir Konstantinovich (1942-2019) — born 1942 Belebei (Bashkir ASSR), died Cambridge (UK) 2019. Deported to West Germany in 1976.

C.

CHALIDZE, Valery Nikolayevich (1938-2018) — born Moscow, died USA. Deprived of Soviet citizenship while visiting USA in 1972. Publisher in USSR (Social Issues) and then in United States (Khronika Press) of human-rights related material. Founding member of Moscow Human Rights Committee.

D.

DANIEL, Yuly — 1925-1988 (Moscow). Poet and prose writer. Convicted in 1966 with Andrei Sinyavsky.

DZHEMILEV, Mustafa — b. 1943 (Crimea). Student. Member of the Action Group. Crimean Tatar leader.

G.

GALANSKOV, Yury Timofeyevich — b. 1939 (Moscow); sentenced in 1968 under Article 70 to seven years strict regime. d. 1972 in Mordovian camps.

GINZBURG, Alexander Ilych — b. 1936 (Moscow); d. 2002 (Paris). Sentenced in 1968 under Article 70 to five years strict regime. On release began working for Relief [Solzhenitsyn] Fund for Political Prisoners. Released in a 1979 prisoner exchange. Emigrated to France.

GORBANEVSKAYA, Natalya Yevgenievna — b. 1936 (Moscow); d. 2013 (Paris). Poet and translator from Polish. First editor-compiler of Chronicle (CCE 1-9). Emigrated to France in 1975. In 2005 became a citizen of Poland.

GRIGORENKO, Pyotr [Petr] Grigorievich — b. 1907 (Zaporozhe, Ukraine); d. 1987 (New York). Red Army major-general in reserves.

K.

KALISTRATOVA, Sofia — b. 1907 (Kursk); d. 1989 (Moscow). Lawyer. Defended Yakhimovich, and Gorbanevskaya.

KAMINSKAYA, Dina Isaakovna — b. 1919 (Yekaterinoslav); d. 2006 (USA). At trials between 1968 and 1971 Kaminskaya defended Yury Galanskov and Alexander Ginzburg, Larisa Bogoraz and Pavel Litvinov, and Mustafa Dzhemilev and Ilya Gabai. She and her husband Konstantin Simis emigrated to the USA in 1977.

KHODOROVICH, Tatyana Sergeyevna — b. 1921; d. 2015 (Paris). Dialectologist. Editor-compiler of Chronicle; member of the Action Group.

KOSTYORIN [Kosterin], Alexei Yevgrafovich — b. 1896 (Saratov); d. 1968 (Moscow). Writer. Supporter of Crimean Tatars. Left Party in 1968 after Czechoslovakia. Daughter Nina died during war.

KOVALYOV [Kovalev], Sergei Adamovich — b. 1930 (Seredyna-Buda, Ukraine); d. 2021 (Moscow). Biologist. Member of the Action Group for Human Rights in USSR. Editor-compiler of Chronicle. Sentenced to five years in the camps in 1975.

KRASIN, Victor — b. 1929; d. 2017 (Israel). Economist. Member of the Action Group for Human Rights in USSR. Emigrated to the USA.

L.

LAVUT, Alexander Pavlovich — 1929-2013 (Moscow). Mathematician. Imprisoned 1980-1986. Editor-compiler of Chronicle. Member of the Action Group for Human Rights in USSR.

LEVITIN-KRASNOV, Anatoly Emmanuilovich — b. 1915 (Baku, Azerbaijan); d. 1991 (Lucerne, Switzerland). Religious writer. Member of the Action Group for Human Rights in USSR.

LYUBARSKY (Lubarsky), Kronid Arkadyevich — b. 1935 (Pskov, RSFSR); d. 1996 (Indonesia). Astrophysicist, co-inventor of Political Prisoners’ Day (1974); created and edited fortnightly USSR News Brief (1978-1992) in Munich before returning to live in Russia.

M.

MARCHENKO, Anatoly Tikhonovich — 1938-1986 (Chistopol Prison). Manual worker. Imprisoned 1966-1968 for attempting to leave the country (Article 64); author of My Testimony. Died after prolonged hunger strike, demanding release of all political prisoners. Married to Larissa Bogoraz.

O.

ORLOV, Yury — b. 1924 (Moscow, RSFSR); d. 2020 (Ithaca, USA). Physicist; founding member of the Moscow Helsinki Group in 1976. Sentenced to 7 +5 in 1978. Released in 1986, moved to USA.

P.

PODRABINEK, Alexander Pinkhosovich — b. 1953. Medical auxiliary. Contributing editor of CCE (psychiatric abuse). Journalist and commentator.

PODYAPOLSKY, Grigory Sergeyevich — b. 1926 (Tashkent, Uzbekistan); d. 1976 (Saratov). Member of the Action Group for Human Rights in USSR.

S.

SAKHAROV, Andrei Dmitrievich — 1921-1989 (Moscow). Nuclear physicist. Committee for Human Rights; Nobel Peace Prize 1975. Exiled to Gorky [Nizhny Novgorod], 1980-1986.

SHIKHANOVICH, Yury Alexandrovich — 1933-2011 (Moscow). Subject of reports in CCE and long-term editor.

SOLZHENITSYN, Alexander Isayevich — 1918-2008 (Moscow). Expelled from Soviet Writers Union 1969. Nobel Prize for Literature 1970. Gulag Archipelago published abroad in Russian 1973. Expelled from USSR February 1974. Returned to Russia in 1994.

SUPERFIN, Gabriel — b. 1943. Literary specialist. Sentenced in 1974 under Article 70 to five years in strict-regime camps plus two years in exile.

T.

TALANTOV, Boris Vladimirovich — b. 1903 (Kostroma); d. 1971 in prison hospital (Kirov Region). Religious writer.

TVERDOKHLEBOV, Andrei — b. 1941 (Moscow); d. 2011 (Lansdale, Pennsylvania).

V.

VAIL, Boris Borisovich — b. 1939 (Kursk); d. 2010 (Copenhagen).

VELIKANOVA, Tatyana Mikhailovna — 1932-2002 (Moscow). Mathematician. Editor-compiler of Chronicle; Member of the Action Group for Human Rights in USSR; sentenced in 1980 under Article 70 to 4 years in the camps and 5 in exile. Refused Gorbachev pardon in 1987. Resumed work as a schoolteacher on her return to Moscow.

Y.

YAKIR, Irina Petrovna — b. 1948 (Penza Region); d. 1999 (Jerusalem).

YAKIR, Pyotr Ionovna — b. 1923 (Kiev); d. 1982 (Moscow). Historian. Imprisoned under Stalin as the son of an “Enemy of the People”. Member of the Action Group for Human Rights in USSR.

YEMELKINA [Emelkina], Nadezhda Pavlovna — b. 1948; d. 2010. Wife of Victor Krasin.

Z.

ZHELKOVSKAYA, Arina Sergeyevna — b. 1937 (Moscow); d. 2021 (Paris). Linguist. Married Alexander Ginzburg in 1970 in the camps; from 1974 took part in work of the Relief Fund; left the USSR in 1980 with adopted son, following husband to France.

ZHELUDKOV, Father Sergy — b. 1909 (Moscow); d. 1984 (Pskov).