1. Prisoners in Camp 35 (VS-389/35)

See Preface

2. Prisoners in Camp 36

Ninety-five names.


(1) Meshener, Josif: 39 years old, history teacher in a school in the town of Bendery. In 1969 he was expelled from the Party and dismissed from his job for a letter on the Czechoslovak question sent to the Central Committee. He then wrote to the United Nations about his letter and the consequences. Arrested in 1970 (CCE 16.10, item 9). Sentence— six years, Article 70.

  • Co-defendant: Ya. Suslensky.

(2) Gluzman, Semyon (Samuel): 27 years old, psychiatrist. Arrested on 11 May 1972, tried for samizdat activity under Article 70; sentenced to seven years in camps and three years’ exile (CCE 28). Well-known as the author of “An ‘in Absentia’ Psychiatric Report on the Case of P.G. Grigorenko”.

[NOTE: See French text in Cahiers du Samizdat, Brussels, 1973, (May, No. 9) and Russian text in Russkaya mysl Paris (12 April 1973). In July 1975, the Royal Society of Psychiatrists sent a telegram of moral support to Gluzman and protested to the Soviet authorities about his imprisonment. See texts in The Observer, London, 20 July 1975.]

(3) Superfin, Gabriel Gavrilovich: 30 years old, literary critic and literary historian. (Article 70, sentence — five years in camps and two years’ exile.) He was arrested on 3 July 1973. Convicted in May 1974, basically for collecting material for the Chronicle of Current Events and for participating in its publication. For Superfin’s trial, see CCE 32.3. He arrived at the camp in September.

(4) Zhuchkov, Konstantin Vasilyevich: 48 years old, a worker. Wrote anonymous letters to various organizations. Article 70, sentence — three years.


(5) Pavlenkov, Vladlen Konstantinovich: 45 years old, until his arrest taught history at a technical college in Gorky [Nizhny Novgorod]. Arrested in October 1969 on charges of trying to set up an anti-Soviet organization (on the “Gorky case”, see CCE 11.15, item 13; CCE 12.4 and CCE 13.3). Articles 70 & 72, sentence — seven years.

(6) Gavrilov, Gennady Vladimirovich: b. 1939, engineer, Lieutenant-Captain in the Soviet Navy; was a member of the Party.

In the autumn of 1968, at an officers’ meeting, he described the entry of troops into Czechoslovakia as an act of aggression. In February 1969 he was, in a single day, expelled from the Party, dismissed from his job and transferred to the naval reserve. In June of the same year he was arrested, and, in 1970, sentenced to six years in camps. He was charged under Articles 70 & 72 with founding an illegal organization, the ‘Union to Struggle for Political Freedom’, with writing theoretical politico-philosophical works and distributing them, and with attempting to organize the underground publication of a newspaper, “The Democrat” (for “The case of the Baltic Fleet Officers” see CCE 11.5 and CCE 15.4, item 1). In June 1974 Gavrilov was pardoned (CCE 32).

  • Co-defendants: Kosyrev (two years, released in 1971) and Paramonov.

Gennady Paramonov, a re-enlisted petty officer, was an external student in the Faculty of Philosophy and History of Tartu University, and a Komsomol leader in the garrison at Paldiski. Was ruled non-responsible for his actions and is now in his fifth year of internment in the Chernyakhovsk Special Psychiatric Hospital.

(7) Ogurtsov, Igor Vyacheslavovich: b. 1937, expert on oriental languages, worked as a translator from Japanese. One of the leaders of the All-Russian Social-Christian Union for the Liberation of the People (ASCULP) (for trial, see CCE 1.6; see also CCE 4.7, item 1; and CCE 19.4). Articles 64, 70 & 72. Sentence — seven years in prison (which ended this year), eight years in camps and five years’ exile.

(8) Davidenko, Georgy Mikhailovich: 27 years old, a metalworker from Nizhny Tagil, formerly a member of the Party. Sentence — four years. Arrested in March 1971 in connection with the case of the “Revolutionary Party of Soviet Intellectuals”. The case was examined by the Sverdlovsk Region Court in the middle of November 1971. [NOTE: The trial is described in some detail, but without the defendants’ names, in CCE 24-11, item 1.]

The Revolutionary Party of Soviet Intellectuals (RPSI) was formed as a result of a merger between the so-called ‘intellectuals’ and an organization called URC (Urals Regional Committee, founded in April 1970; Secretary, Lavrentyeva); at the URC third regional conference, in August 1970, Davidenko was appointed ‘president’. They set up a printing press, held meetings, wrote and distributed articles: “Trampolism” and “The Birth of New Classes and the Struggle in the Era of Socialism”. The verdict refers to these articles as making assertions about the degradation of socialist society and the degeneration of the Komsomol. The Chronicle has no information on the ideological position of this organization; it is only known that they called themselves ‘anti-trampolists’, but what is meant by the term ‘trampolism’ is not clear.

Davidenko’s co-defendants:

  • Spinenko, Vasily (wrote under the pseudonym Smolin), b. 1945, a graduate of the Faculty of Philosophy at Donetsk University, the “ideologist of the organization”; declared mentally incompetent, not responsible for his actions and interned for “compulsory psychiatric treatment”;
  • Kiselev, Alexander Ivanovich, b. 1951, a metalworker in a mine in the town of Makeyevka. Sentence — three years; now released;
  • Belomesov and Semiletov (see Camp 36, 2.2 “Anti-Soviet Organisations”).

The fate of two workers from Nizhny Tagil is unknown: Babishcheva, Evgenia Kirillovna, b. 1948, and Lavrentyeva, Natalya Dmitrievna, b. 1950.

(9) Kandyba, Ivan Alexeyevich: Ukrainian. Arrested in 1961 and sentenced to 15 years — apparently under Articles 64, 70 & 72 — for participation in the ‘case’ of Lukyanenko (see V. Chornovil, “The Green Book”).

(10) Dyak, Mikhail Dmitrievich: 39 years old, Ukrainian; until his arrest he was a neighbourhood commissioner, with the rank of police-lieutenant, in the Dolinsk district of the Ivano-Frankovsk Region. Arrested in March 1967 as one of the leaders of the “Ukrainian National Front” (on the case of the UNF, see CCE 17.7). Articles 64, 72 and 218 (illegal possession of weapons or explosives). Sentence — five years in prison (which he has served), seven years in camps and five years in exile.

Mikhail Dyak is seriously ill; the authorities proposed to him that he write a plea for a pardon, promising that this would be granted. Dyak refused.

(11) Demidov, Dmitry llych: 26 years old, Ukrainian, engineer. Arrested on 13 April 1973 in connection with the case of the “Union of the Ukrainian Youth of Galicia”. The verdict stated that Demidov “effectively took upon himself the responsibilities of deputy leader for ideological questions concerning the organization’s activities”. Articles 70 & 72, and an accomplice under Article 218-1, Pt 2 (stealing firearms, ammunition or explosives). Sentence — five years.

(12) Melekh, Nikolai: b. 1930, Ukrainian. Arrested in Lvov in 1961. Sentence — 15 years. Melekh’s four co-defendants were executed by shooting. It is known that the case is described in the book Ferment in the Ukraine, [1971] published in England.


(13-15) Three of those convicted in the “Trial of the ‘Hijackers’” in Leningrad in 1970 (CCE 17.6):

  • Khnokh, Arie-Leib: 30 years old, a worker. Sentence — ten years.
  • Mendelevich, Josif: 27 years old, up to his arrest a student at the Riga Polytechnic Institute. Sentence — 12 years. Transferred to Camp 35 from Camp 36.
  • Altman, Anatoly: 33 years old, worked as a joiner until his arrest. Sentence — ten years.

All charged under Articles 64 (via 15), 70 & 72 and 93-1 (grand larceny of State property).

(16-17) Two of those convicted at the “Aeroplane Affair” trial in Leningrad in 1971 (CCE 20.1):

  • Yagman, Lev Naumovich: 33 years old, engineer. Sentence — five years. Articles 70 & 72 and 189 (being an accessory before the fact, Article 93-1).
  • Butman, Gilel Israilevich: 42 years old, engineer. Sentence — ten years. Articles 64 (via 17), 70 & 72 and 189.

All the above-mentioned count the start of their sentences front June 1970.

(18) Shkolnik, Isaac: 37 years old, a metalworker from Vinnitsa. He was preparing to emigrate from the USSR. Arrested at the beginning of July 1972.

At first, he was charged under Article 190-1 with ‘anti-Soviet conversations’, at work and with friends. Later charged with espionage on behalf of Israel (according to information in A Chronicle of Human Rights, No. 1, on behalf of Britain). A military tribunal in Vinnitsa, having investigated Shkolnik’s case, from the 29 March to 11 April 1973, sentenced him to ten years in camps. On 3 July [1974?] the Military Collegium of the USSR Supreme Court reduced Shkolnik’s sentence to seven years.


(19) Balakhonov, Vladimir: worked as a translator with the permanent Soviet delegation at the United  Nation’s Meteorological Organization in Switzerland. Decided not to return to the USSR; then changed his mind and returned to Moscow on 1 December 1972. The Soviet Consul had assured Balakhonov that he would not be subjected to any persecution. Balakhonov asserts that he had been well aware of the risks involved, but decided to return, nevertheless, because he could not bear the separation from his family.

In Moscow Balakhonov was summoned to the KGB several times and threatened; he was arrested on 7 January 1973. Article 64 — sentence 12 years.

[NOTE: Two documents, written by Balakhonov in 1974 and summarized in CCE 35, have reached the West. 0ne, an appeal to the World Meteorological Organization in Geneva, was given to the addressee by the Swiss section of Amnesty in Geneva in summer 1975. On 11 July 1975 a demonstration for Balakhonov took place in Geneva.]

(20) Gladko, Georgy Vladimirovich: an ex-soldier. Escaped abroad from the Potsdam military prison. Sentence — 12 or 13 years, beginning in 1962 [see CCE 9.11; CCE 11.3 and 35].

(21) Valdman, I.: Estonian, a soldier. Crossed the Soviet-Czechoslovak border. Article 64, sentence — 12 years.

(22) Lychak, Ukrainian, perhaps a soldier. Attempted to cross the border; sentence — eight or 12 years; has about two years left to serve.

(23) Kruglyak, a sailor. Attempted to escape abroad. Sentence — 12 years; has about four years left to serve.

(24) Vendysh, a sailor. Attempted to escape abroad; sentence — 12 years; he was convicted in about 1970. [NOTE: See also CHR, 1973, Nos. 5-6, where some details differ: there Vendysh is reported to be a Jew born in 1947 and sentenced to 15 years after trying to escape from a Soviet ship in the Mediterranean in 1967. In 1972 he was in Mordovian Camp 19.]


OUN = Organisation of Ukrainian Nationalists; UPA = Ukrainian Insurrectionist Army

(25) Antonyuk, Zinovy: 41 years old, a philologist. Arrested on 14 January 1972. Charged with harbouring and distributing Ukrainian samizdat, including the Ukrainian Herald. The verdict of the Kiev Region Court : seven years in camps and three years’ exile (CCE 27.1).

(26) Svetlichny, Ivan Alexeyevich: writer and literary critic. Arrested on 14 January 1972. Tried by the Kiev Region Court , charged under Article 70. Harbouring Ukrainian samizdat of a fictional and autobiographical nature; producing articles of literary criticism. Sentence — seven years in camps and five in exile [CCE 29.5].

On 11 February 1972 the newspaper Evening Kiev also accused Svetlichny of betraying his motherland to the Belgian citizen Jaroslav Dobosch for 50 roubles, and of trying to send to the West a number of anti-Soviet documents. One of these documents was A Dictionary of Ukrainian Rhymes, the criminal nature of which stems from the fact that its author is the political prisoner S. Karavansky [CCE 13.7]; the other documents were also of an academic nature. It is not known whether these accusations were examined at the trial.

At the end of October or beginning of November Svetlichny was transferred from Camp 35 to an unknown destination. He was previously arrested by the Kiev KGB in August 1965 and released on 30 April 1966, because of insufficient evidence.

(27) Kalynets, Igor: a poet. Arrested in 1972. Some Ukrainian publishers in Canada republished a collection of verse by Kalynets which had been published in the USSR, But the Canadian edition also included three poems previously unpublished. The Lvov Region Court ruled that one of these was criminal in content. Sentence — six years in camps and three years’ exile.

A few days before the arrest of Kalynets his wife, the poet Irina Stasiv-Kalynets, had been given an identical sentence.

Igor Kalynets has been written about in CCE 7.13, item 11; CCE 27.1 and 28.7.

(28) Gorbal, Nikolai [Ukr. Mykola Horbal] Andreyevich: b. 1941, lecturer in aesthetics at a technical college, external student at the Ivano-Frankovsk Pedagogical Institute. In 1968-1969, according to the verdict in his case, he wrote ‘a composition in verse form’ called “A Thought”. He made two copies of this and gave them to several acquaintances to read. He was arrested on 24 November 1970. Sentence — five years in camps and two years in exile, under Article 70. According to the sentence, passed by the Ternopol Region Court, Gorbal must spend his term of exile in the Komi Autonomous Republic [NW Russia].

(29) Stus, Vasily: 36 years old, poet and literary critic. Arrested in January 1972. Charged at first under Article 190-1, then under Article 70. Sentence — five years in camps and three years in exile. The case against Stus was based on: (1) a critical article about P. Tychina; (2) a letter to the government about the state of literature in the Ukraine; (3) telling two ’anti-Soviet’ jokes; (4) the publication in Belgium of a collection of his poems (See CCE 27).

(30) Kovalenko, Nikolai Yermilovich: 56 years old, a Kiev teacher. Arrested on 14 January 1972. Tried for involvement with Ukrainian samizdat and for oral statements about Czechoslovakia. Sentence — five years (CCE 27).

(31) Pronyuk, Yevgeny: about 30 years old, formerly a research fellow at the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Philosophy. Arrested on 8 July 1972 for sending, a letter to the Party’s Central Committee, together with V. Lisovoi, about the growing number of political trials in the Ukraine in 1971-1972. At their trial Lisovoi and Pronyuk were also charged with contributing to two issues of the Ukrainian Herald (CCE 30). Article 70. Sentence — seven years in camps and five years in exile.

(32) Zakharchenko, Vasily Ivanovich: b. 1936, writer. Article 70; sentence — five years. The expulsion of Zakharchenko from the Ukrainian Writers’ Union was reported in CCE 28.

(33) Melnichuk, Taras Yuryevich: 30 years old, a poet. In July 1972 he was sentenced, in Ivano-Frankovsk, to three years under Article 70 (see CHR, Nos. 5-6, Ukrainian Herald No. 6).

(34) Dyak, Vladimir: Arrested on 1 June 1971 by the Lvov KGB. Charged with distributing leaflets, with protesting against the policy of Russification in the Ukraine, and with having written pamphlets (one of these was “The Ukrainian Language in a Socialist Society”). A few days after his arrest a criminal charge was brought against him which alleged that he had stolen, and then sold, wood from a timberyard under his charge in the village of Bilche-Volistsa: Article 84, pt. 3, of the Ukrainian Criminal Code (corresponding to Article 92, pt. 3, of the RSFSR Code).

The theft charge was dropped for lack of evidence at the end of September 1971.

On 12 October the Lvov Region Court sentenced V. Dyak to five years in camps under Article 70. But the charge under Article 92 was brought up again just as Dyak was on the point of being sent to a camp. The investigation dragged on for about a year; on 17 October 1972 V. Dyak was found guilty of theft and sentenced to ten years in camps, to run concurrently with the earlier sentence. All his property was confiscated.

Dyak himself categorically denies any guilt concerning the criminal charge.

(35) Soroko, Stepan Klimentyevich: b. 1932. Convicted in August 1952. He was sentenced to 25 years by a military tribunal organized by State security troops in Rovno Region, for being a member of OUN and for setting up an OUN cell in the village of Krichilsk.

(36) Prishlyak, Yevgeny: 62 years old, was once a regional or interregional security officer in UPA. As of the present, he has spent a total of 28 years in Polish, German and Soviet prisons. His ‘Soviet’ term is 25 years, under Article 58-1. Transferred to Camp 35 from Camp 36. [See CCE 24].

(37) Pidgorodetsky, Vasily: was a district security officer in the UPA. Arrested in 1951, sentenced to 25 years. In 1955 he was one of the organizers of an uprising in a camp. For this he was sentenced to 15 years. During the pre-trial investigation he learnt that, after a review, his earlier sentence had been reduced by ten years. He is due to be released in 1981. [NOTE: According to the Ukrainian Herald No. 4, he was arrested in 1948, not 1951, and the camp uprising was in 1956.]

(38) Lushch, Konstantin: member of the OUN, in which (or in the UPA) he held a leading position; he later went into hiding. Arrested in 1969, sentenced under Article 64 to three years in prison and 12 years in camps.

  • His co-defendant was Demchishin.

(39) Verkholyak, Dmitry Kuzmich: b. 1928, Ukrainian, worked as a doctor’s assistant in the UPA. Captured in a forest at the beginning of 1955, he was one of the last to be caught. Tried in February 1956. Sentence — 25 years. [See CCEs 8, 9 and 25.]

  • Nos 40 and 41 are missing from the manuscript for an unknown reason.


(42) Jucis, Juozas: b. 1915. Arrested in 1971. Sentence — 12 years.

(43) Tilinskas, Antanas: b. 1920. Arrested in 1969. Sentence — six years.

(44) Jauga, Antanas: b. 1921. Arrested in 1967. Sentence — 15 years.

(45) Umezius, Zigmas: arrested at the same time as the above, same sentence.

(46-47) Tamoliunas, Povilas: b. 1926; and Bruzas, Ignas: over 60 years old. Both arrested in 1966, both sentenced to ten years.

(48) Karpavicius, Petras: b. 1912. Arrested in 1964; sentence — 15 years.

(49) Mithanas, Leonas: b. 1907. Arrested in 1963; sentence — 12 years,

(50) Ciuksis, Karolius: b. 1912. Arrested 1963, sentence — 15 years.

(51-54) Imprisoned since 1962:

  • Kirdenkis, Vladas, b. 1924;
  • Kaminskas, Kazis, b. 1908;
  • Dudenas, Nikolas, b. 1910;
  • Miskinis, Balys, b. 1920.

All are serving 15-year sentences.

(55) Pocius, Petras: b. 1920. Sentence — 15 years, begun in 1961.

(56) Smitas, Hdvardas: about 50 years old. Probably arrested in 1955; sentence — 20 years, plus three years for an escape.

(57-65) “Twenty-Fivers”:

  • Sidaris, Vitas: b. 1928, arrested in 1957 [in Camp 36, see No. 64];
  • Bastis, Vytas, about 40 years old;
  • Purlis, Bronius and Matuzevicius, Jonas, b. 1930 [CCE 24] — all arrested in about 1953.
  • Slapsinskas, Vytas, over 50 years old, arrested in 1952;
  • Vyturis, Placidis, b. 1921, arrested in 1950;
  • Valentinas, Vladas, and Pavlinas, both arrested in 1947-48, both had three years added to their sentence because of an escape;
  • Tucas, Robertas — date of arrest unknown.

(66) Galdikas, Balys: b. 1925. Arrested in 1948, sentence — 25 years (for assisting the partisans). Released in 1956 on KGB recommendation. Six months to a year later he was returned to the camp to serve out his sentence. Given three extra years for attempting an escape from Vorkuta.

(67-70) No further details are known about the following Lithuanians in Camp 35:

  • Meskinas, Albertas, sentence — 15 years;
  • Slucka, Antanas, sentence — 15 years;
  • Kurzinskas, Jonas, and
  • Babicas.


Council of the Colony Collective [SKK]

The so-called Council or Soviet of the Colony Collective (SKK) was, in theory, the camp’s self-governing body. It is composed of persons, to quote the RSFSR Corrective Labour Code, “who have recommended themselves by their exemplary behaviour and their conscientious attitude to labour and education”. In camps where there are political prisoners, this body consists almost entirely of people who collaborated with the Germans during 1941-45, especially as policemen for the occupation. (As a rule, the political prisoners themselves boycott the SKK — CCE 33.5.)

(71) Dordzhiev, E. B.: During the Second World War he worked for both Soviet and German intelligence. Arrested in about 1953, sentence — 25 years under Article 58-1.

(72) Strashkov, Nikolai: before the war he was a miner in the Donbass area; during the occupation [1941-1944] he collaborated with the Germans (not, apparently, with military or punitive forces but with civilian organizations); after the war he lived in Central Asia under a pseudonym; in about 1963 he was recognized while visiting the Donbass area, and arrested; Article 64, sentence — 15 years.

(73) Ostrovsky: was once a minister in the Belorussian government set up by the Germans. Sentence — 25 years. In the camp he is a member of the SKK.

(74) Yefimov: served in the police force under the Germans; in the camp he is a member of the SKK.

(75) Balashov: served in the German police force. In the camp he is a shift-foreman.

(76) Shavkunenko.


(77) Chanturishvili, Teimuraz: b. 1947, a Georgian poet.

In 1969 he was charged under Article 70 and also under Article 91 (banditry with the aim of stealing State property) for taking part in an attack on a police pay-office; according to a different version he was also charged under Article 72 for participating in a nationalist organization, ‘The Black Rose’. It is said that Chanturishvili himself describes the pay-office robbery as an “expropriation’. Sentence — 12 years in camps.

(78) Bondar, Nikolai Vasilyevich: b. 1939, formerly taught philosophy at Uzhgorod University. Was arrested on 7 November 1970 during a demonstration on Kreshchatik [main street in Kiev]; Bondar there unrolled a placard bearing a slogan criticizing the occupation of Czechoslovakia. Article 70, sentence — seven years (CCE 23).

(79) Chekalin, Alexander Nikolayevich: b. 1938, a fitter in the factory ‘Stroimashina’ in the town of Lisichansk, Voroshilovgrad Region.

On 14 June 1970, during elections for the USSR Supreme Soviet, “he concocted anti-Soviet inscriptions on ballot-papers, calling for the overthrow of Soviet power and also adding knowing fabrications which libelled the Soviet social and political system” (quotation from the verdict: see full text in “Trials of Recent Years”, CCE 33.10).

Arrested on 27 May 1971, Article 70. The sentence of the Voroshilovgrad court — 5 years in camps; there are grounds to believe that Chekalin’s sentence was reduced to four years on appeal.

(80) Shakhverdyan, Bagrat Levonovich: b. 1940, Armenian, a cybernetics engineer. Arrested 19 March 1973. Tried in Yerevan in November 1973. Articles 70 & 72;102 sentence — five years in camps and two in exile.

  • Co-defendant — Arat Tagutavmetyan.

(81) Budagyan, Yury: b. 1942, Armenian. Articles 70 & 72; sentence — three and a half years. Released on 4 October 1974.

  • Co-defendants : V. and S. Melikyan [CCE 35].

(82) Berger, L.N. (otherwise known as Kolodezh): transferred from a criminal to a political camp, and to Camp 35 from Mordovia (385/1, special-regime). (On Berger see the Diaries of Eduard Kuznetsov.)

(83) Rumyantsev, Valery: Article 64, sentence — 15 years. Released in August 1974, now living in the village of Tikhoretsk, under administrative surveillance for one year [CCE 34].

(84) Danne, Erik: Latvian. According to one source, sentenced to seven years for espionage; according to others, to five or six years under Article 70; his term expires in 18 months to two years’ time. [NOTE: Released in early 1975. Also see report on Danne in CCE 11.//]

(85) Bogdanov, V.K.: for “espionage” — removing a machine-part from an ammunitions factory — his sentence was eight years. He is suffering from radiation sickness.

(86) Sokolov, Boris: a worker, convicted under Article 70 for certain actions linked to criticism of Brezhnev. Sokolov’s mother, Anna Moiseyevna KOGAN, is held in the women’s political camp in Mordovia [CCE 33.4, Camp 3, No. 9].

(87) Afanasyev: possibly convicted for an attempt to escape from the USSR. Transferred to Vladimir Prison.

(88) Yatsishin: sentenced to six years in 1972 in the Ukraine, for nationalism. Transferred to Vladimir Prison. [NOTE: According to CHR, 1973, No. 4, Mikhail Yatsishin is an office-worker from Chervonograd.]


  • Nemazilov, K. N.: a Tatar;
  • Ismagilov, Ismail, a Tatar or Bashkir;
  • Marchenko, V.: sentence — seven years plus five years’ exile [NOTE: Valery Marchenko: six years in camps and two in exile, according to Ukrainian Herald Nos. 7-8, which describes him as a writer.];
  • Gurny, Roman, Ukrainian, convicted in 1961 [NOTE: Not “convicted recently”, first name not ‘Panas’. Also, the one word ‘Glana’ (a name) has been deleted just below ‘Gurny’];
  • Bobrov, Vladimir;
  • Litvinenko, A.;
  • Smirnov.