The Chronicle possesses the following information on persons being held in Special Psychiatric Hospitals (SPH) under ‘political’ articles of the Criminal Code.
Anatoly Anisimov (b. 1950, from Trans-Carpathia) – has been in the SPH since 1970; sentenced under Article 76(?).
Boris Dmitrievich Yevdokimov (b. 1923, a journalist from Leningrad) – For a number of years, he was published in the [émigré] journal Grani under the pseudonym “Sergei Razumny”. He was arrested in the summer of 1971 under Article 70, declared not responsible and sent to the Leningrad SPH. In 1972 he was transferred to Dnepropetrovsk (CCEs 26, 27.6 and 37.5).
Leonid Yefimov (b. 1950; from Ivano-Frankovs) — has been in the SPH since 1970; sentenced under Article 70.
Zabolotny (b. 1935, a worker) – mentioned in CCE 27.6.
[Mikhail] Ivankov [b. 1921] — a radio operator on the tanker Tuapse who asked for political asylum in the USA but later [in 1956] returned to the USSR. In spite of an undertaking given by the Soviet embassy to the US State Department, Ivankov was tried on his return to the Soviet Union and put in a SPH.
He has been in the Kazan and Chernyakhovsk hospitals. Everywhere he has received large doses of powerful drugs. He has been in Dnepropetrovsk since 1968. The doctors are promising him a “bed for life”. All the other crew members of the Tuapse have, after imprisonment in Mordovia, completed their sentences and been released (see CCE 8.7).
Boris Kovgar (b. 1926; a Kiev museum official) – After 1967 he was a secret informer for the KGB. In 1972, during the time of the mass arrests in Ukraine, he wrote and distributed an open letter in which he plainly described how he had worked for the KGB. He was arrested, then in September 1972 he was declared to be mentally ill but not “exempted from punishment”. After he recovers, he will have to undergo trial (CCEs 28, 30).
Anatoly Ivanovich Lupinos (b. 1937) – First sentenced in 1956 to 6 years in strict-regime corrective labour institutions. He did time in Dubrovlag and was given a second sentence there. He was released in 1967 with his legs paralysed. He worked as an administrator in a musical and choral society. In May 1971 he was arrested again for “anti-Soviet propaganda” (reading verses at a meeting near the monument to Shevchenko). He was diagnosed (as a schizophrenic) at the Serbsky Institute (CCE 22.).
Mikhail Petrovich Lutsik (b. in West Ukraine, on the territory of the Austro-Hungarian Empire) – spent his childhood in Vienna; in the 1930s he lived in Germany and studied in Berlin. He was arrested by the Gestapo, released (in about 1941-2) and sent back to his homeland. In 1944 he was arrested by the KGB; in 1956 he was exculpated; in 1960 he was arrested again and got a 15-year sentence.
He was released in 1972; he refused to accept a Soviet passport, as he considered himself a citizen of Austria and wanted to emigrate from the Soviet Union. In the autumn of 1973, he was sentenced to 2 years for ‘vagrancy’. In 1974 he was transferred from a camp to the Dnepropetrovsk SPH, as he continued to assert that he was an Austrian citizen (CCEs 24, 35).
Viktor Ivanovich Maltsev (b. 1913) – First sentenced in 1961 under Article 58 of the old Criminal Code, Gives the impression of being seriously mentally ill.
Popov (b. 1910, from Dnepropetrovsk) – has been in the SPH since 1968; sentenced under Article 70.
Sergei Potylitsin (b. 1952, from Trans-Carpathia) – has been in the SPH since 1971; sentenced under Article 83 of the RSFSR Criminal Code, “illegal crossing of the border”.
Nikolai Grigorevich Plakhotnyuk (b. 1936, graduate of a medical college and medical institute) – worked in the Pushche-Voditsy sanatorium. He was arrested on 13 January 1972 in the case of the Ukrainian Herald, He was sent to the Serbsky Institute for a diagnosis.
There he went on hunger-strike in protest at the rude way patients were treated. He was declared to be ill; the diagnosis was schizophrenia with persecution mania. On 13 November 1972, his case was heard in court. The court declared Plakhotnyuk to be not responsible “at times” and ordered him to be sent for compulsory treatment in an SPH, but after his recovery to be tried as a sane man (CCEs 27.6, 28.).
Vasily Ivanovich Chernyshov (from Leningrad) – a graduate of the Faculty of Mathematics and Mechanics at Leningrad State University, he taught mathematics in an institute of higher education; married, has a son. Chernyshov wrote verse and prose “for himself”. He gave the exercise book containing his compositions to two acquaintances to read, and in March 1971 he was arrested on a charge of anti-Soviet propaganda.
After a 30-minute psychiatric examination, Chernyshov was diagnosed as having “chronic schizophrenia in paranoid form” (his co-defendant, V. Popov, who read the exercise-book, received the same diagnosis. He was released from a psychiatric hospital in 1973), Chernyshov was in the Leningrad SPH and was subjected to drug treatment there; in 1972 he was transferred to Dnepropetrovsk (see CCE 18.1 and CCE 27).
Those interned in Dnepropetrovsk on ‘political’ charges usually receive large doses of neuroleptic drugs.
Sychovka SPH (Smolensk Region)
Yury Sergeyevich Belov (b. 1942) – In 1968, while he was in exile after a 3-year prison term under Article 70, he was arrested and given a second sentence under section two of the same article, for attempting to send abroad his book Report from Darkness.
In the autumn of 1971, a new case was initiated against him under Article 70 for “agitation inside the prison”. A medical examination at the Serbsky Institute declared him not responsible. In May 1972 he was transferred from Vladimir to Sychovka. Until now, commissions have extended Belov’s term in the SPH, although the hospital doctors recommend his discharge (CCE 9, CCE18.1, CCE 26.5, 27, 30).
Breslavsky, probably the same person as N.I. Broslavsky (b. 1905, a worker) – During the war, he served on the Turkish border as a border- guard, crossed the border and settled in Turkey. In 1945 the Turkish authorities handed him over to the Soviet authorities. Breslavsky was sentenced under Article 58-la and served 10 years.
On his release, he applied to the Turkish embassy. When he came out of the embassy he was arrested. He was charged with “attempting to cross the border illegally” (Article 83 of the RSFSR Criminal Code, with reference to Article 15). The verdict was ‘schizophrenia’. In 1972 he was transferred from Leningrad SPH to Sychyovka.
Zinovy Mikhailovich Krasivsky (b. 1930) – Arrested in March 1967. He was sentenced by a Lvov court in “the case of the Ukrainian National Front” (CCE 17) to 12 years for “treason to the motherland”, the first 5 years in prison plus 5 years in exile.
In December 1971, shortly before the end of his prison term, a new case was initiated against Krasivsky in Vladimir Prison (under Article 70, section 2) for verses “of a nationalist character”, which he had written in prison. In the spring of 1972, he was declared not responsible in the Serbsky Institute and sent to an SPH (CCE 27; corrected CCE 41.7). Until he was put in the SPH Krasivsky never complained about his heart. Now he has a bad heart; in August 1975 he suffered a heart attack. [CCE 41.7 points out that this was the Smolensk SPH, and that he was here put in the Sychyovka list by mistake.]
Vladimir Krasnyak — sentenced under Article 70. In August 1975 he was sent from Vladimir Prison to the SPH. The prisoners consider him to be mentally ill (CCEs 33, 36).
Pyotr Alexeyevich Lysak (an engineer) – was put in an SPH in about 1957 (at a meeting he opposed the exclusion of some students from a higher education institute on political grounds). Formerly he was in Leningrad SPH (CCE 11.2).
Konstantin Petrovich Malyshev (b. 1929, from the Gorky Region) – an engineer employed by the administration of the city Party committee. He was charged under Article 190-1 for his complaints to higher authorities.
Josif Mikhailovich Terelya (b. 1942) – Sentenced in 1968 for Ukrainian nationalist propaganda. He started to serve his term in Dubrovlag. In 1969 he was transferred to Vladimir Prison on suspicion of organizing an escape-tunnel. In Vladimir he was tried again and declared not responsible (CCEs 18, 27, 30). [Correction: CCE 41.7 reports that Terelya was serving a term for a criminal offence when, in 1969, he was sentenced again for circulating leaflets in the camp.]
According to unconfirmed reports the following patients in Sychyovka SPH were charged under political articles: A. Andreyev, B. Bodanin, D. Boss, V. Bublik, A. Denisov, M. Klishch, M. Maximov, I. Makhayev, the priest Efrem Okinin, I. Uletsky and the priest Chudakov. Apparently, Boris Davarashvili (CCE 30), Kotov (CCE 30) and Purtov (CCEs 27, 26) are still in Sychyovka.
Vladimir Avramenko (b. 1930, a Muscovite, an engineer) – a graduate of Moscow Aviation Institute. He used to write poetry and read it to his friends. In 1972 he was arrested on someone’s denunciation and sentenced for the “anti-Soviet content” of his verses. It turned out that a ‘case’ had been prepared against Avramenko since the time he had taken the entrance exams to the Institute, when he had written an essay revealing his real attitudes. He was declared not responsible and sent to Kazan.
Nikolai Ivanovich Baranov (b. 1936, a worker from Leningrad) – arrested in Moscow; charged under Article 70; declared not responsible, diagnosed as a ‘psychopath’, put in Leningrad SPH, later transferred to the SPH in Alma-Ata. Baranov escaped from Alma-Ata with a group of other prisoners; during the escape one of the hospital staff was killed. Baranov was captured and sent to Kazan. He now receives large doses of neuroleptic drugs and is in a very lifeless state (see CCE 18.1, CCE 27.6).
Kim Saifullovich Davletov (b. 1932, a Muscovite) – a Master of Philology, a senior researcher in the department of dialectical materialism at the Institute of Philosophy attached to the USSR Academy of Sciences, a member of the Institute’s Party committee. In December 1971 he was arrested for publishing a Stalinist pamphlet in Albania; charged under Article 70 (CCE 24.11, item 3; CCE 25.10; CCE 34.9).
Vyacheslav Anismovich Dzibalov (b. 1915, a senior engineer at the Leningrad Institute of Mechanics) – with a group of friends, he spoke out in support of “a renewal of Soviet society and the revival of Leninist policies”. He was arrested in March 1971 under Article 70. He and some of his co-defendants Maria Musienko, Andrei Kozlov and one of the Purtov brothers — were declared non-responsible. Dzibalov was at first confined in Leningrad SPH, but in 1972 he was transferred to Alma-Ata and then to Kazan.
Gennady Zadkov (b. 1940) – put in Kazan SPH in 1968 as a result of a “camp case” involving Article 70.
Andrei Matko (b. 1950) – In 1975 he was tried under Article 70 and declared not responsible [CCE 41.7 gives more details, and reports that he should appear in the Sychovka list, not the Kazan list.]
Alexander Stepanov (b. 1936, a radio-technician from the Central Volga) – He wrote a number of letters (including one to the science fiction writer A. Kazantsev) in which he drew his own picture of the world, strongly influenced by science-fiction. According to his hypothesis, extra-planetary beings are carrying out an experiment on Earth and all human social life is the result of this experiment, ft seems that Communists play a somewhat negative role in the life of society. Because of these letters Stepanov was arrested in 1970 under Article 70. He was declared not responsible. Stepanov is in bad health and for therapeutic reasons he should not be prescribed the neuroleptic drugs with which he is being treated.
Lyubov Shtein (b. 1949) – in 1971 tried to escape to the West, but she was arrested in Czechoslovakia and handed back to the Soviet authorities. Charged under Article 64.
Yury Bondarev (b. 1954) – Tried in 1974 for hi-jacking an aeroplane.
According to unconfirmed information, Kozlov is still in Kazan, He is about 40 years old, a worker. This is his second term in Kazan. He ended up there the first time for being an active “writer of complaints”. After his release he tried to emigrate to join his relatives in South America; for this he was again arrested in 1973, declared not responsible and sent to an SPH. He was apparently charged under Article 83 of the RSFSR Criminal Code.
Petras Cidzikas (see CCE 34) was arrested in February 1973 in connection with the Chronicle of the Lithuanian Catholic Church, pamphlets and verses: he is being held in the SPH in Chernyakhovsk.
Mikhail Stepanovich Zverev, an engineer from Pyatigorsk, is in the same hospital. He was charged under Article 70 of the RSFSR Criminal Code. He was declared not responsible by a decision of the Stavropol Region Court on 18 November 1975 and sent for compulsory treatment. He has never been on any psychiatric register, although he received a head wound during the war. His wife considers him to be a normal person,
Releases from SPHs
The following have been released:
Andrei Kozlov (b. 1939, from Leningrad) – arrested in March 1971; co-defendant of Dzibalov (see above). Released in 1974 (see CCE 26.5).
S.M. Stroganov (CCE 27).
Vladimir Shlepnyov — charged in 1971 with trying to cross the border illegally under Article 64 with reference to Article 15. Released in 1973 (CCE 26.5).
A. F. Chinnov has been released. Born in 1938, he is a graduate of the Faculty of Chemistry at Leningrad State University. In December 1968 he was arrested for trying to cross the border, declared not responsible and diagnosed as schizophrenic (CCE 26.5 and CCE 34.9). He was transferred to Dnepropetrovsk from Leningrad SPH. Released in 1974 or 1975.
It is known that out of the patients in the Leningrad SPH in 1971-1972, the following have been released: I.M. Larin, Yu.P. Sapezhko and A.G. Chepula (see CCE 18.1).
In addition, the “national Communists” arrested in 1968 — A. Fetisov, M. Antonov, V. Bykov and O. Smirnov – have been released from SPHs long ago (see CCE 7.8).
The following have also been released: Viktor Prikhodko (see CCE 19.2) and Maria Semyonovna Musienko, a co-defendant of Dzibalov, Kozlov and Purtov.
Psychiatric Hospitals of Ordinary Type
Meleshko (b. 1935, a taxi-driver from near Moscow) – He tried to obtain justice in some disputes at his taxi base; when he did not succeed, he began to write letters to the local authorities, for which, in 1972, he was charged under Article 190-1 and sent to Kazan. In January 1976 he was transferred to the ordinary psychiatric hospital “White Pillars” near Moscow.
Sergei Musatov (b. 1953, a Muscovite) – In 1973 he was serving in the army in Hungary and tried to escape to Austria but was captured on the border. He was charged under Article 64. Declared not responsible. In January 1976 he was transferred from Kazan to “White Pillars”.
Mikhail Ignatievich Kukobaka — a worker from the town of Alexandrov, arrested in 1970, charged under Article 190-1, declared not responsible and sent to Sychyovka SPH. In 1974, Kukobaka was transferred to an ordinary hospital in the town of Vladimir. Compulsory medical treatment of him stopped over three months ago, but Kukobaka has not yet been discharged from the hospital (CCE 21 and CCE 34.9).
Gennady Paramonov (the Baltic Fleet Officers’ case, see CCE 10.5), who was transferred in the autumn to an ordinary hospital in the town of Perm (CCE 37), ceased to receive compulsory treatment at the beginning of February. He has not yet been discharged from the hospital.
Lev Ubozhko, who escaped from an ordinary hospital in Chelyabinsk Region (CCE 37), has been captured and returned to the hospital.
Vladimir Titov, who was being given compulsory treatment in Sychyovka, has been transferred to an ordinary psychiatric hospital in the town of Kaluga. While he was serving a 5-year sentence under Article 70 in Vladimir Prison, he was tried again because of a letter he had written from prison, and declared not responsible (CCEs 27, 30).
Pyotr Kopytin has been transferred to an ordinary psychiatric hospital from Kazan; he is 26 years old, a Muscovite who was working as a postman. He used to put samizdat into post-boxes together with people’s letters.
Sven Kreek was arrested in Tallinn on 11 January 1975 (CCE 37). He was charged under Article 70 for distributing pamphlets with his own verses in them. Declared not responsible and sent for compulsory treatment to an ordinary hospital in Tallinn. [But see footnote to CCE 37’s item.]
In 1975 the following persons were in ordinary hospitals:
Yu. P. Brovko (CCE 35); B.D. Vinokurov in the Kashchenko Hospital in Moscow (CCE 35); V. Maijaskas (CCE 37); Birute Poskiene — in Kaunas (CCE 35),
The Chronicle has no information about their discharge.
A.D. Ponomaryov is in the Skvortsov-Stepanov psychiatric hospital in Leningrad (see CCE 26.5 and CCE 38). Yury Pavlovich Tarakanov, a 35-year-old teacher of English who was arrested in Leningrad on 6 February 1976, is in the same hospital.
In 1962-64 Tarakanov was imprisoned under Article 70 of the RSFSR Criminal Code. In 1971 during the 24th Congress of the CPSU he was put in the Skvortsov-Stepanov hospital. In 1975 he was refused a visa to emigrate to the USA.
More detail on many of the above may be found in CCE 41.7 and in Reddaway and Bloch, Russia’s Political Hospitals (1977).